Dry eye, also called tear dysfunction, encompasses pathologies where there is a shortage of tear quantity and/or deterioration in its quality, producing inflammation of the surface of the eye. It is a chronic pathology that has no definitive cure.

The tear film consists of 3 layers; the lipid layer produced by the meibomian glands located in the eyelids, the aqueous layer produced by the main tear glands and the mucin layer produced by the cells on the surface of the eye. There are 3 main types of dry eye:

  • Deficiency of the lipid layer: poor tear quality. The tear is missing the outer layer, composed of lipids that prevent excessive evaporation of the tear film. It can be associated with different conditions such as age, menopause, blepharitis, screen abuse, medications, hormonal factors or diseases, such as diabetes.
  • Deficiency of the aqueous layer: lack of tear quantity. It can be associated with autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, etc.
  • Mixed type of deficit of the aqueous layer and the lipid layer.

Although dry eye has no definitive cure, treatment has two objectives: to avoid and cure possible injuries to the surface of the eye caused by dryness and to alleviate the patient's symptoms.

If the glands are affected and the patient presents symptoms despite conventional treatment, regulated intense pulsed light therapy is recommended to stimulate the proper functioning of the Meibomian glands.